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Examining Racial Equity in Psychedelics

In recent years, psychedelic science has seen a resurgence, known as the "psychedelic renaissance," driven by research into the therapeutic potential of substances like psilocybin and MDMA. These substances show promise in treating mental health conditions such as major depressive disorder and PTSD. However, this resurgence has highlighted a concerning trend: the underrepresentation of Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) in the psychedelic industry.
racial equity in psychedelics

Table of Contents


The Psychedelic Renaissance

This renaissance has been fueled by a growing body of research exploring the potential therapeutic applications of psychedelics. Psychedelic substances like psilocybin (the active compound in magic mushrooms) and MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, commonly known as ecstasy) are showing great promise in treating certain mental health conditions. The significance of ketamine assisted psychotherapy in the context of psychedelic science cannot be overstated, offering a promising avenue for addressing mental health disparities, especially in communities of color.

Numerous clinical trials and studies have yielded promising findings, suggesting that psychedelic assisted therapy could offer novel and effective treatment approaches for a range of mental health conditions. These include major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Mithoefer et al., 2019), and substance use disorders. The potential of MDMA assisted psychotherapy, particularly its FDA breakthrough therapy designation, highlights its promise in alleviating conditions such as racial trauma, further emphasizing the need for inclusive clinical trials.

The potential of psychedelic assisted therapy has been further reinforced by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granting “breakthrough therapy” designation to both psilocybin and MDMA. This designation is reserved for drugs that demonstrate substantial improvement over existing treatments for serious or life-threatening conditions, and it expedites the development and review process.

As research continues to yield positive outcomes, psychedelic-assisted therapies could emerge as a transformative treatment paradigm, offering new hope for individuals struggling with mental health challenges that have proven resistant to conventional interventions.

Racial Equity Considerations

While the psychedelic renaissance has brought renewed hope and excitement, it has also highlighted a concerning trend: the underrepresentation of Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) in psychedelic research studies and clinical trials. This underrepresentation is particularly alarming given the significant psychological and physiological impact of race-based trauma among BIPOC communities.

This lack of diversity in research participants raises important questions about the generalizability of findings to non-white populations and the equity of access to these emerging psychedelic-assisted treatments. Without adequate representation of diverse racial and ethnic groups, it becomes challenging to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and cultural relevance of these therapies for BIPOC communities, which often face disproportionate mental health burdens and disparities in access to care. The impact of racial trauma symptoms on these communities further complicates their mental health landscape, underscoring the need for culturally sensitive and inclusive research practices.

As the field of psychedelic medicine continues to evolve, it is imperative that researchers, clinicians, and policymakers prioritize racial equity and ensure that the benefits of psychedelic-assisted therapies are accessible and inclusive for all communities. Failure to address these issues risks perpetuating existing health disparities and further marginalizing already underserved populations.

By proactively addressing racial equity considerations, the psychedelic renaissance has the potential to not only revolutionize mental health treatment but also serve as a catalyst for promoting social justice and reducing longstanding inequities in healthcare access and outcomes.

Psychedelics and Racial Trauma

Groundbreaking Study by Williams et al.

A ground-breaking study has shed light on the potential of psychedelics in addressing racial trauma and mental health disparities among Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) communities. This cross-sectional online survey of 313 BIPOC individuals in North America explored the relationship between psychedelic use and symptoms of racial trauma, depression, and anxiety.

The findings of this study are notable for several reasons. First, it is the first known study to focus exclusively on psychedelic use outcomes in addressing racial trauma in a diverse sample. Second, the results suggest that naturalistic use of classic psychedelics or MDMA is associated with significant reductions in traumatic stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms related to experiences of racism.

For those interested in further exploring the intersection of psychedelics and racial trauma, the Journal of Psychopharmacology offers additional research articles that delve into similar topics. While the study’s observational nature and reliance on self-reported data limit the strength of the conclusions, it nonetheless provides valuable insights into an area that has been largely unexplored in psychedelic research. The study’s focus on the experiences of BIPOC individuals is particularly important, as these communities often face disproportionate mental health burdens and disparities in access to care, which can be exacerbated by the added stress of racial trauma.

Systemic Reasons for Underrepresentation

Despite the promising findings of the Williams et al. study, the underrepresentation of BIPOC individuals in psychedelic research remains a significant challenge.

Several systemic reasons have been proposed to explain this disparity:

  1. Lack of cultural inclusivity and racial diversity within the research community: The psychedelic research field has historically been dominated by white researchers and institutions, which can contribute to a lack of cultural competency and sensitivity in study design and recruitment efforts.

  2. Stigma related to mental disorders and lack of treatment access among BIPOC: Mental health stigma and barriers to accessing mental health services are well-documented in BIPOC communities, which can discourage participation in research studies.

  3. Recruitment methods not emphasizing BIPOC participation: Traditional recruitment methods, such as advertising in predominantly white communities or relying on existing networks, may fail to reach and engage with diverse populations effectively.

  4. Differences in attitudes and norms towards psychedelic use: Cultural attitudes and norms regarding the use of psychedelics can vary across racial and ethnic groups, potentially influencing willingness to participate in related research studies.

Addressing these systemic reasons is crucial to ensuring that the benefits of psychedelic-assisted therapies are equitably distributed and that the unique experiences and perspectives of BIPOC communities are adequately represented in the research.

Historic and Systemic Factors

Beyond the immediate reasons for underrepresentation, it is essential to recognize the broader historic and systemic factors that contribute to mistrust and reluctance among BIPOC communities to participate in biomedical research. These include:

  • History of unethical research practices: High-profile cases such as the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and the exploitation of Henrietta Lacks have left a legacy of mistrust towards research institutions, particularly among Black Americans.

  • Vulnerability inherent in high-dose psychedelic administration: The vulnerability and altered states of consciousness associated with high-dose psychedelic experiences may raise ethical concerns and exacerbate existing mistrust among marginalized communities.

  • Underrepresentation of BIPOC in clinical research across various fields: The lack of diversity in clinical research is a pervasive issue that extends beyond the realm of psychedelic studies, reflecting broader systemic inequities in healthcare and research.

  • Economic inequity and lack of compensation for study participation: Financial barriers and the inability to take time off from work or family responsibilities for uncompensated research studies can disproportionately impact BIPOC communities, which often face greater economic disparities.

Addressing these historic and systemic factors requires a multifaceted approach that involves building trust, increasing representation and cultural competency within the research community, and addressing broader societal inequities that contribute to disparities in healthcare access and outcomes.

Baltimore as a Case Study

Racial Inequity and Health Disparities

The city of Baltimore serves as a poignant case study on the profound racial inequities and health disparities that persist in many urban centers across the United States. Despite its vibrant cultural heritage and historical significance, Baltimore has been plagued by systemic issues that have disproportionately impacted its Black residents.

One of the most striking manifestations of these inequities is the stark contrast in health outcomes between Black and white residents. According to data from the Baltimore City Health Department, the life expectancy gap between predominantly white and predominantly Black neighborhoods can be as wide as 20 years, a chilling statistic that underscores the pervasive impact of social determinants on health.

These disparities can be traced back to historical practices such as redlining, a discriminatory policy that effectively denied access to housing and investment opportunities in certain neighborhoods based on racial composition. The legacy of redlining has left many predominantly Black neighborhoods trapped in cycles of poverty, disinvestment, and limited access to essential resources, including quality healthcare.

Johns Hopkins University and Community Tensions

Ironically, Baltimore is also home to one of the leading institutions in psychedelic research, the Johns Hopkins Center for Psychedelic and Consciousness Research (CPCR). However, the relationship between the university and the surrounding impoverished communities of color has been strained by a history of tension and mistrust.

One contributing factor to this tension is the perception that Johns Hopkins Universityโ€™s expansion and development initiatives, such as the East Baltimore Neighborhood Development Initiative, have contributed to gentrification and displacement of long-standing residents. Additionally, the universityโ€™s controversial plan to establish a private police force has further exacerbated concerns within the community about overreach and infringement on civil liberties.

These tensions are particularly relevant in the context of psychedelic research, as they highlight the challenges faced by institutions in recruiting and retaining participants from underrepresented and marginalized communities. Building trust and establishing genuine partnerships with these communities is essential for ensuring that the potential benefits of psychedelic-assisted therapies are accessible and inclusive.

Challenges in Recruiting Black Participants

The tensions between Johns Hopkins University and the surrounding communities have manifested in significant difficulties in recruiting Black participants for psychedelic research studies conducted at the CPCR. This underrepresentation not only limits the generalizability of the research findings but also perpetuates existing disparities in access to novel and potentially transformative mental health treatments.

Addressing these recruitment challenges requires a multifaceted approach that involves acknowledging and addressing the historical and systemic factors that have contributed to mistrust. Building trust and establishing meaningful partnerships with community leaders, organizations, and stakeholders is crucial in creating a more inclusive and equitable research environment.

Furthermore, it is essential to recognize that the underrepresentation of Black participants in psychedelic research is not unique to Baltimore or Johns Hopkins University. Rather, it reflects a broader systemic issue that pervades the field of clinical research, where communities of color have historically been underrepresented and marginalized.

By examining the case of Baltimore through the lens of racial equity in psychedelic research, we can gain valuable insights into the complex interplay of historical, socioeconomic, and institutional factors that contribute to health disparities and inequitable access to innovative treatments. Addressing these challenges is not only a moral imperative but also a crucial step towards realizing the full potential of psychedelic-assisted therapies in promoting mental health and well-being for all communities.

Poverty, Medicalization, and Public Health Impact

Limitations of Individual Treatment Approaches

While the potential of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy in addressing mental health conditions and racial trauma is undoubtedly promising, it is crucial to recognize the limitations of individual treatment approaches. Psychedelic therapy, particularly in its ability to address racial trauma and PTSD caused by racism, shows significant potential in mental health treatment. However, it also highlights the necessity of culturally informed therapeutic practices to effectively serve BIPOC individuals. Despite this, psychedelic therapies, no matter how innovative or effective, cannot solve systemic inequalities and health disparities on their own.

The harsh reality is that poverty and social determinants of health, such as access to education, housing, and economic opportunities, have a far greater impact on population health outcomes than any single medical intervention. Decades of research have consistently demonstrated that socioeconomic status is one of the most significant predictors of health and longevity, with individuals from lower socioeconomic backgrounds experiencing higher rates of chronic diseases, mental health disorders, and premature mortality.

In the context of racial equity and psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy, it becomes evident that addressing the root causes of health disparities – systemic racism, intergenerational poverty, and lack of access to resources – is essential for ensuring that these novel treatments are truly accessible and beneficial to marginalized communities.

Accessibility and Infrastructure Challenges

Even if psychedelic-assisted therapies receive regulatory approval, significant accessibility and infrastructure challenges will likely impede their widespread adoption and equitable distribution. These challenges include:

  1. High costs and limited access: Like many cutting-edge medical treatments, psychedelic-assisted therapies are expected to be expensive and require extensive healthcare infrastructure, making them inaccessible to many individuals from lower socioeconomic backgrounds or those without adequate insurance coverage.

  2. Need for pathways to treatment for less affluent and BIPOC communities: Ensuring that psychedelic-assisted therapies do not exacerbate existing healthcare disparities will require concerted efforts to develop pathways to treatment for less affluent and BIPOC communities, which often face disproportionate barriers to accessing mental health services.

  3. Importance of community-based and culturally appropriate treatment approaches: Traditional healthcare models may not be sufficient to effectively deliver psychedelic-assisted therapies to marginalized communities. Community-based and culturally appropriate treatment approaches that consider the unique needs, experiences, and perspectives of diverse populations will be essential.

Addressing these challenges will require a multifaceted and collaborative approach involving healthcare providers, policymakers, researchers, and community stakeholders. Failure to do so risks further entrenching existing inequities and undermining the potential public health impact of these promising novel treatments.

Commercialization and Policy Considerations

As the field of psychedelic medicine continues to evolve and commercial interests grow, it is essential to consider the potential implications of commercialization and policy decisions on racial equity and access to care.

One significant concern is the prospect of profiteering from substances that have historically been criminalized and disproportionately impacted marginalized communities. The idea of wealthy investors and corporations capitalizing on the medicalization of psychedelics while many individuals, particularly those from BIPOC communities, have faced harsh penalties for their use or possession, raises ethical and social justice concerns.

To address this issue, careful policy and regulatory rollout will be necessary to ensure parity and avoid further exacerbating disparities. This may involve measures such as decriminalization initiatives, expungement of criminal records related to psychedelic substances, and reinvestment of potential tax revenues into affected communities.

Additionally, it is crucial that decriminalization efforts do not inadvertently create new disparities based on race and substance use patterns. For example, while certain psychedelics primarily used in white communities may be decriminalized, others more commonly associated with BIPOC populations could remain criminalized, perpetuating existing inequities.

By proactively addressing these issues and prioritizing racial equity in the policy-making process, the field of psychedelic medicine has an opportunity to set a precedent for responsible and inclusive commercialization that benefits all communities, rather than exacerbating existing disparities.

Recommendations and Conclusions

racial equity in psychedelic therapy

Building Trust and Addressing Systemic Racism

To address the underrepresentation of BIPOC communities in psychedelic research and ensure equitable access to psychedelic-assisted therapies, research institutions must prioritize building trust and addressing systemic racism within their own ranks. This requires a multi-pronged approach that involves:

  1. Establishing genuine partnerships with BIPOC communities: Rather than operating in isolation, research institutions should actively engage with community leaders, organizations, and stakeholders to understand their perspectives, concerns, and priorities. Collaborative partnerships based on mutual respect and shared decision-making are crucial for fostering trust and ensuring that research efforts are culturally sensitive and responsive to community needs.

  2. Increasing racial diversity within the research community: Efforts should be made to diversify the workforce within psychedelic research, from principal investigators and research staff to clinical trial participants. A more diverse research community can help promote cultural competency, reduce implicit biases, and create a more inclusive and welcoming environment for BIPOC individuals.

  3. Addressing institutional and systemic racism: Research institutions must critically examine their own policies, practices, and organizational culture to identify and address systemic barriers that perpetuate racial inequities. This may involve implicit bias training, revising recruitment and hiring practices, and implementing accountability measures to ensure sustained progress towards diversity and inclusion goals.

  4. Engaging in open and transparent communication: Transparency and open communication are essential for building trust and addressing historical mistrust. Research institutions should proactively share information about their research goals, processes, and findings with BIPOC communities, and provide opportunities for feedback and dialogue.

By prioritizing trust-building and addressing systemic racism within their own institutions, the psychedelic research community can demonstrate its commitment to racial equity and create an environment that is more inclusive, supportive, and representative of the diverse communities it aims to serve.

Ensuring Equitable Access and Effectiveness

Beyond addressing representation in research, it is equally important to ensure that psychedelic-assisted therapies are equally effective and accessible for communities of color. This requires a multifaceted approach that considers:

  1. Cultural adaptation and tailoring: As research progresses and psychedelic-assisted therapies are developed, it is essential to consider the cultural relevance and appropriateness of these interventions for diverse populations. Culturally adapting treatment protocols, incorporating cultural beliefs and practices, and involving community members in the development process can enhance the effectiveness and acceptance of these therapies.

  2. Addressing financial and logistical barriers: Psychedelic-assisted therapies are likely to be resource-intensive and potentially expensive, creating financial barriers for many individuals from low-income and underserved communities. Strategies such as implementing sliding-scale payment models, providing transportation assistance, and offering flexible scheduling options can help mitigate these barriers and improve access.

  3. Expanding considerations to underrepresented groups: While the focus has been on racial and ethnic minorities, it is important to recognize that other marginalized groups, such as sexual and gender minorities, also face significant mental health disparities and barriers to care. Ensuring equitable access and effectiveness for these populations must be a priority as well.

By prioritizing cultural adaptation, addressing financial and logistical barriers, and expanding considerations to underrepresented groups, the field of psychedelic medicine can work towards ensuring that the potential benefits of these novel therapies are accessible and effective for all communities, regardless of race, ethnicity, or other sociodemographic factors.

Promoting Racial Equity and Unity

Perhaps most importantly, the psychedelic research community has a unique opportunity to apply the principles of unity and interconnectedness, often evoked by psychedelic experiences, towards promoting racial equity and reducing health disparities. This can be achieved through:

  1. Applying the sense of unity and oneness: Many individuals who have undergone psychedelic experiences report a profound sense of unity and interconnectedness with all of humanity and the natural world. This perspective can be leveraged to foster a deeper understanding of the interconnected nature of social injustices and the imperative to address racial inequities in the context of mental health and well-being.

  2. Making racial equity an urgent priority: The psychedelic research community should not merely treat racial equity as an afterthought or a box to be checked, but rather as an urgent and central priority. Recognizing the disproportionate burden of mental health disorders and trauma experienced by BIPOC communities, addressing these disparities should be a core mission and driving force behind the development of psychedelic-assisted therapies.

  3. Advocating for systemic interventions: While psychedelic-assisted therapies hold promise, it is essential to recognize that addressing racial inequities in mental health requires a comprehensive approach that includes systemic interventions. The psychedelic research community should use its platform to advocate for broader policy changes, investment in underserved communities, and a holistic approach to promoting health equity.

By embracing the principles of unity and interconnectedness, making racial equity an urgent priority, and advocating for systemic interventions, the psychedelic research community can harness the transformative potential of these novel therapies to advance racial justice, promote healing, and foster a more equitable and compassionate society.


The emerging field of psychedelic-assisted mental health research and treatment holds immense promise, but it also presents a significant opportunity to address long-standing racial inequities and promote healing within marginalized communities. By prioritizing trust-building, addressing systemic racism, ensuring equitable access and effectiveness, and embracing the transformative principles of unity and interconnectedness, the psychedelic research community can pave the way for a more just, inclusive, and compassionate approach to mental healthcare.

However, this path forward requires a sustained commitment and a willingness to confront difficult truths about the deep-rooted systemic barriers that have perpetuated disparities in healthcare and research. It demands a comprehensive approach that extends beyond the confines of individual treatment modalities and embraces broader systemic interventions and policy changes.

As we stand at the precipice of a potential paradigm shift in mental health treatment, it is imperative that we seize this opportunity to advance racial justice and health equity. By doing so, we can truly harness the transformative potential of psychedelics, not only in alleviating individual suffering but also in fostering a deeper sense of unity, compassion, and understanding among all humanity.


What are some potential barriers to BIPOC participation in psychedelic research studies?

Lack of trust in research institutions due to historic unethical practices, stigma related to mental health and lack of treatment access, economic barriers and inability to take time off for uncompensated studies, and lack of racial diversity among research personnel and cultural insensitivity.

How can research institutions improve diversity and inclusion in psychedelic studies?

Build trust and establish partnerships with BIPOC communities, emphasize recruitment efforts targeting underrepresented groups, provide financial compensation and accommodate work/family responsibilities, and increase racial diversity among research staff and promote cultural competency.

Why is it important to ensure equitable access to psychedelic-assisted treatments?

To address mental health disparities disproportionately affecting BIPOC communities, prevent further exacerbation of existing inequities in healthcare access, uphold principles of social justice and ethical medical practice, and fully realize the public health impact of these promising novel treatments.

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